athlete's foot: Definition from

athlete's foot: Definition from
Athlete's FootClassification and external resources
A severe case of athlete's footICD-10B35.3ICD-9110.4DiseasesDB13122MedlinePlus000875eMedicinederm/470MeSHD014008
Athlete's foot (also known as ringworm of the foot[1] and tinea pedis[1]) is a fungal infection of the skin that causes scaling, flaking, and itch of affected areas, is caused by fungi in the genus Trichophyton. While it is typically transmitted in moist communal areas where people walk barefoot, such as showers or bathhouses, the disease requires a warm moist environment, such as the inside of a shoe, in order to incubate. Because of this the fungus only affects approximately 0.75% of habitually (frequently) barefoot people.[2]

Although the condition typically affects the feet, it can infect or spread to other areas of the body, including the groin, particularly areas of skin that are kept hot and moist, such as with insulation, body heat, and sweat, e.g. in a shoe, for long periods of time. While the fungus is generally picked up through walking barefoot in an infected area or using an infected towel, infection can be prevented by remaining barefoot as this allows the feet to dry properly and removes the fungus' primary incubator - the warm moist interior of a shoe.[3] Athlete's foot can be treated by a number of pharmaceuticals (including creams) and other treatments, although it can be almost completely prevented by never wearing shoes, or wearing them as little as possible.
Contents1 Signs and symptoms2 Diagnosis3 Transmission4 Prevention5 Treatments5.1 Medication5.1.1 Topical5.1.2 Oral5.2 Alternative treatments6 References7 External links
Signs and symptomsPale, flaky & split skin of athlete's foot in a toe
Athlete's foot causes scaling, flaking, and itching of the affected skin.[4] Blisters and cracked skin may also occur, leading to exposed raw tissue, pain, swelling, and inflammation. Secondary bacterial infection can accompany the fungal infection, sometimes requiring a course of oral antibiotics.[5][6]

The infection can be spread to other areas of the body, such as the groin,and usually is called by a different name once it spreads, such as tinea corporis on the body or limbs and tinea cruris (jock itch or dhobi itch) for an infection of the groin. Tinea pedis most often manifests between the toes, with the space between the fourth and fifth digits most commonly afflicted.[7][8][9]

Some individuals may experience an allergic response to the fungus called an "id reaction" in which blisters or vesicles can appear in areas such as the hands, chest and arms. Treatment of the fungus usually results in resolution of the id reaction.

DiagnosisAMicroscopic view of cultured athlete's foot fungus
Athlete's foot can usually be diagnosed by visual inspection of the skin, but where the diagnosis is in doubt direct microscopy of a potassium hydroxide preparation (known as a KOH test) may help rule out other possible causes, such as eczema or psoriasis.[10] A KOH preparation is performed by taking skin scrapings which are covered with 10% to 20% potassium hydroxide applied to the microscope slide; after a few minutes the skin cells are degraded by the KOH and the characteristic fungal hyphae can then be seen microscopically, either with or without the assistance of a stain. The KOH preparation has an excellent positive predictive value, but occasionally false negative results may be obtained, especially if treatment with an antifungal medication has already begun.[7]

If the above diagnoses are inconclusive or if a treatment regimen has already been started, a biopsy of the affected skin (i.e. a sample of the living skin tissue) can be taken for histological examination.

A Wood's lamp, although useful in diagnosing fungal infections of the scalp (tinea capitis), is not usually helpful in diagnosing tinea pedis, since the common dermatophytes that cause this disease do not fluoresce under ultraviolet light.[7] However, it can be useful for determining if the disease is due to a nonfungal afflictor.[citation needed]

TransmissionFrom person to person
Athlete's foot is a communicable disease caused by a parasitic fungus in the genus Trichophyton, either Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes.[11] As the fungus that cause athlete's foot requires warmth and moisture to survive and grow, the primary method of incubation and transmission is when people who regularly wear shoes go barefoot in a moist communal environment, such as a changing room or shower, and then put on shoes.

Due to their insulating nature and the much reduced ventilation of the skin, and the tight space in which toes are forced to grow pressed together, shoes are the primary cause of the spread of Athlete's Foot.[3] As such, the fungus is only seen in approximately 0.75% of habitually (always) barefoot people. Always being barefoot allows full ventilation around the feet that causes them to remain dry and exposes them to sunlight, as well as developing much stronger skin and causes the fungus to be worn off and removed before it can infect the skin. Also, people who have never worn shoes have splayed toes due to them not been forced to grow firmly pressed together by a shoe, this even further minimises the chances of infection as it prevents warm moist pockets of skin, such as those seen between the third, fourth and fifth toes in shoe-wearing people.[2][11][12][13]

Athlete's Foot can also be transmitted by sharing footwear with an infected person, such as at a bowling alley or any other place that lends footwear. A less common method of infection is through sharing towels. The various parasitic fungi that cause athlete's foot can also cause skin infections on other areas of the body, most often under toenails (onychomycosis) or on the groin (tinea cruris).

Since shoes are the primary mode of infection and incubation and since the fungus is almost non-existent in always barefoot cultures due to the prevalence of strong, dry, feet that are very well ventilated, not wearing shoes at all is almost 100% effective in preventing the fungus.[2] People who regularly wear shoes should try to walk barefoot as much as possible in order to prevent infection. Simply remaining barefoot for a few hours after walking through an infected area is usually enough to prevent the fungus growing and wear it off your feet.[3]

When moving through an area that is likely to be infected it is important to remember that the fungus requires the foot to remain moist in order to grow. Since fungi thrive in warm, moist environments, keeping feet as dry as possible and avoiding sharing towels aids prevention. Always dry the feet thoroughly if you wish to put on shoes and ensure that both the shoes and socks are clean and dry and have been regularly washed. In shoe-wearers, hygiene and minimization of shoe use play important roles in preventing transmission. Public showers, borrowed towels, and, particularly, footwear,[14] can all spread the infection from person to person through shared contact followed by incubation in a shoe.[14][15]

Without medication, athlete's foot resolves in 30"40% of cases[16] and topical antifungal medication consistently produce much higher percentages of cure.[17]

Conventional treatment typically involves daily or twice daily application of a topical medication in conjunction with hygiene measures outlined in the above section on prevention. Keeping feet dry and practising good hygiene is crucial to preventing reinfection. Severe or prolonged fungal skin infections may require treatment with oral antifungal medication. Zinc oxide-based diaper rash ointment may be used; talcum powder can be used to absorb moisture to kill off the infection.

The fungal infection may be treated with topical antifungal agents, which can take the form of a spray, powder, cream, or gel. There exists a large number of antifungal drugs including: miconazole nitrate, clotrimazole, tolnaftate (a synthetic thiocarbamate), terbinafine hydrochloride,[4]butenafine hydrochloride, and undecylenic acid.

A solution of 1% potassium permanganate dissolved in hot water may be found to be an excellent alternative to antifungal drugs.[18]

The time-line for cure may be long, often 45 days or longer. The recommended course of treatment is to "continue to use the topical treatment for four weeks after the symptoms have subsided" to ensure the fungus has been completely eliminated. However, because the itching associated with the infection subsides quickly, patients may not complete the courses of therapy prescribed.

Anti-itch creams are not recommended, as they will alleviate the symptoms, but will exacerbate the fungus; this is because anti-itch creams typically enhance the moisture content of the skin and encourage fungal growth.

If the fungal invader is not a dermatophyte, but a yeast, other medications such as fluconazole may be used. Typically, fluconazole is used for candidal vaginal infections (moniliasis), but has been shown to be of benefit for those with cutaneous yeast infections, as well. The most common of these infections occur in the web (intertriginous) spaces of the toes and at the base of the fingernail or toenail. The hallmark of these infections is a cherry red color surrounding the lesion and a yellow thick pus.

For severe cases, the current preferred oral agent in the UK[19] is the more effective terbinafine.[20] Other prescription oral antifungals include itraconazole and fluconazole.[5]

Alternative treatments
Tea tree oil improves the symptoms but does not cure the underlying fungal infection, according to a double-blind study of 104 patients.[21][22]Ajoene, a compound found in garlic, is sometimes used to treat athlete's foot.[23]

References^ a b Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. pp. 1135. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.^ a b c SHULMAN, Pod.D,, SAMUEL B. (1949). "Survey in China and India of Feet That Have Never Worn Shoes". The Journal of the National Association of Chiropodists. Retrieved 27 September 2012.^ a b c Howell, Phd, Dr Daniel (2010). The Barefoot Book. Hunter House.^ a b Likness, LP (June 2011). "Common dermatologic infections in athletes and return-to-play guidelines.". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 111 (6): 373-379. PMID 21771922.^ a b Gupta AK, Skinner AR, Cooper EA (2003). "Interdigital tinea pedis (dermatophytosis simplex and complex) and treatment with ciclopirox 0.77% gel". Int. J. Dermatol. 42 (Suppl 1): 23"7. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.42.s1.1.x. PMID 12895184.^ Guttman, C (2003). "Secondary bacterial infection always accompanies interdigital tinea pedis". Dermatol Times 4: 23"7.^ a b c Al Hasan M, Fitzgerald SM, Saoudian M, Krishnaswamy G (2004). "Dermatology for the practicing allergist: Tinea pedis and its complications". Clinical and Molecular Allergy 2 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1476-7961-2-5. PMC 419368. PMID 15050029.^ Hainer BL (2003). "Dermatophyte infections". American Family Physician 67 (1): 101"8. PMID 12537173.^ Hirschmann JV, Raugi GJ (2000). "Pustular tinea pedis". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 42 (1 Pt 1): 132"3. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(00)90022-7. PMID 10607333.^ del Palacio, Amalia; Margarita Garau, Alba Gonzalez-Escalada and M?? Teresa Calvo. "Trends in the treatment of dermatophytosis" (PDF). Biology of Dermatophytes and other Keratinophilic Fungi: 148"158. Retrieved 10 October 2007.^ a b "Athlete's Foot " Cause". WebMD. 2 July 2008. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2010.^ "Athlete's foot". Mayo Clinic Health Center.^ [1] Risk factors for athlete's foot, at WebMD^ a b Ajello L, Getz M E (1954). "Recovery of dermatophytes from shoes and a shower stall". J. Invest. Dermat. 22 (4): 17"22. doi:10.1038/jid.1954.5. PMID 13118251.^ Robert Preidt (29 September 2006). "Athlete's Foot, Toe Fungus a Family Affair" (Reprint at USA Today). HealthDay News. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2007. ""Researchers used advanced molecular biology techniques to test the members of 57 families and concluded that toenail fungus and athlete's foot can infect people living in the same household.""^ Over-the-Counter Foot Remedies (American Family Physician)^ Crawford F, Hollis S (18 July 2007). Crawford, Fay. ed. "Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot" (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD001434. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001434.pub2. PMID 17636672.^ "Potassium Permanganate". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.^ National Library for Health (6 September 2007). "What is the best treatment for tinea pedis?". UK National Health Service. Retrieved 29 September 2007.^ Bell-Syer SEM, Hart R, Crawford F, Torgerson DJ, Tyrrell W, Russell (22 April 2002). Bell-Syer, Sally EM. ed. "Oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2 (2): CD003584. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003584. PMID 12076488.^ Tong MM, Altman PM, Barnetson RS (1992). "Tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis". Australasian J. Dermatology 33 (3): 145"9. doi:10.1111/j.1440-0960.1992.tb00103.x. PMID 1303075.^ Satchell AC, Saurajen A, Bell C, Barnetson RS (2002). "Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis with 25% and 50% tea tree oil solution: a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study". Australasian J. Dermatology 43 (3): 175"8. doi:10.1046/j.1440-0960.2002.00590.x. PMID 12121393.^ Eliades Ledezma, Katiuska Marcano, Alicia Jorquera, Leonardo De Sousa, Maria Padilla, Mireya Pulgar, Rafael Apitz-Castro (November 2000). "Efficacy of ajoene in the treatment of tinea pedis: A double-blind and comparative study with terbinafine". J Am Acad Dermatol 43 (5 pt 1): 829"832. doi:10.1067/mjd.2000.107243. PMID 11050588.
External linksvteInfectious diseases ??Mycoses and Mesomycetozoea (B35"B49, 110"118)Superficial and
Piedra (exothrix/
(Dermatophytosis)By locationTinea barbae/Tinea capitis (Kerion) ??Tinea corporis (Ringworm, Dermatophytid) ??Tinea cruris ??Tinea manuum ??Tinea pedis (Athlete's foot) ??Tinea unguium/Onychomycosis (White superficial onychomycosis ??Distal subungual onychomycosis ??Proximal subungual onychomycosis)
Tinea corporis gladiatorum ??Tinea faciei ??Tinea imbricata ??Tinea incognito ??FavusBy organismEpidermophyton floccosum ??Microsporum canis ??Microsporum audouinii ??Trichophyton interdigitale/mentagrophytes ??Trichophyton tonsurans ??Trichophyton schoenleini ??Trichophyton rubrumOtherHortaea werneckii (Tinea nigra) ??Piedraia hortae (Black piedra)BasidiomycotaMalassezia furfur (Tinea versicolor, Pityrosporum folliculitis) ??Trichosporon spp (White piedra)Subcutaneous,
and opportunisticAscomycotaDimorphic
(yeast+mold)OnygenalesCoccidioides immitis/Coccidioides posadasii (Coccidioidomycosis, Disseminated coccidioidomycosis, Primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis. Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis) ??Histoplasma capsulatum (Histoplasmosis, Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis, Primary pulmonary histoplasmosis, Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis) ??Histoplasma duboisii (African histoplasmosis) ??Lacazia loboi (Lobomycosis) ??Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Paracoccidioidomycosis)OtherBlastomyces dermatitidis (Blastomycosis, North American blastomycosis, South American blastomycosis) ??Sporothrix schenckii (Sporotrichosis) ??Penicillium marneffei (Penicilliosis)Yeast-likeCandida albicans (Candidiasis, Oral, Esophageal, Vulvovaginal, Chronic mucocutaneous, Antibiotic candidiasis, Candidal intertrigo, Candidal onychomycosis, Candidal paronychia, Candidid, Diaper candidiasis, Congenital cutaneous candidiasis, Perianal candidiasis, Systemic candidiasis, Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica) ??C. glabrata ??C. tropicalis ??C. lusitaniae ??Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pneumocystosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia)Mold-likeAspergillus (Aspergillosis, Aspergilloma, Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Primary cutaneous aspergillosis) ??Exophiala jeanselmei (Eumycetoma) ??Fonsecaea pedrosoi/Fonsecaea compacta/Phialophora verrucosa (Chromoblastomycosis) ??Geotrichum candidum (Geotrichosis) ??Pseudallescheria boydii (Allescheriasis)BasidiomycotaCryptococcus neoformans (Cryptococcosis), Trichosporon spp (Trichosporonosis)Zygomycota
(Mucormycosis)Rhizopus oryzae ??Mucor indicus ??Absidia corymbifera ??Syncephalastrum racemosumEntomophthorales
(Entomophthoramycosis)Basidiobolus ranarum (Basidiobolomycosis) ??Conidiobolus coronatus/Conidiobolus incongruus (Conidiobolomycosis)Microsporidia
(Microsporidiosis)Enterocytozoon bieneusi/Encephalitozoon intestinalisMesomycetozoeaRhinosporidium seeberi (Rhinosporidiosis)UngroupedAlternariosis ??Fungal folliculitis ??Fusarium (Fusariosis) ??Granuloma gluteale infantum ??Hyalohyphomycosis ??Otomycosis ??Phaeohyphomycosis

fung, clas


drug (fung)
vteDiseases of the skin and appendages by morphologyGrowthsEpidermalwartcallusseborrheic keratosisacrochordonmolluscum contagiosumactinic keratosissquamous cell carcinomabasal cell carcinomamerkel cell carcinomanevus sebaceoustrichoepitheliomaPigmentedFreckleslentigomelasmanevusmelanomaDermal and
subcutaneousepidermal inclusion cysthemangiomadermatofibromakeloidlipomaneurofibromaxanthomaKaposi's sarcomainfantile digital fibromatosisgranular cell tumorleiomyomalymphangioma circumscriptummyxoid cystRashesWith
involvementEczematouscontact dermatitisatopic dermatitisseborrheic dermatitisstasis dermatitislichen simplex chronicusDarier's diseaseglucagonoma syndromelangerhans cell histiocytosislichen sclerosuspemphigus foliaceusWiskott-Aldrich syndromeZinc deficiencyScalingpsoriasistinea (corporiscrurispedismanuumfaciei)pityriasis roseasecondary syphilismycosis fungoidessystemic lupus erythematosuspityriasis rubra pilarisparapsoriasisichthyosisBlisteringherpes simplexherpes zostervaricellabullous impetigoacute contact dermatitispemphigus vulgarisbullous pemphigoiddermatitis herpetiformisporphyria cutanea tardaepidermolysis bullosa simplexPapularscabiesinsect bite reactionslichen planusmiliariakeratosis pilarislichen spinulosustransient acantholytic dermatosislichen nitiduspityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acutaPustularacne vulgarisacne rosaceafolliculitisimpetigocandidiasisgonococcemiadermatophytecoccidioidomycosissubcorneal pustular dermatosisHypopigmentedtinea versicolorvitiligopityriasis albapostinflammatory hyperpigmentationtuberous sclerosisidiopathic guttate hypomelanosisleprosyhypopigmented mycosis fungoidesWithout
ErythemaGeneralizeddrug eruptionsviral exanthemstoxic erythemasystemic lupus erythematosusLocalizedcellulitisabscessboilerythema nodosumcarcinoid syndromefixed drug eruptionSpecializedurticariaerythema (multiformemigransgyratum repensannulare centrifugumab igne)Nonblanchable
PurpuraMacularthrombocytopenic purpuraactinic purpuraPapulardisseminated intravascular coagulationvasculitisInduratedscleroderma/morpheagranuloma annularelichen sclerosis et atrophicusnecrobiosis lipoidicaMiscellaneous
disordersUlcersHairtelogen effluviumandrogenic alopeciatrichotillomaniaalopecia areatasystemic lupus erythematosustinea capitisloose anagen syndromelichen planopilarisfolliculitis decalvansacne keloidalis nuchaeNailonychomycosispsoriasisparonychiaingrown nailMucous
membraneaphthous stomatitisoral candidiasislichen planusleukoplakiapemphigus vulgarismucous membrane pemphigoidcicatricial pemphigoidherpesviruscoxsackievirussyphilissystemic histoplasmosissquamous cell carcinoma

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